Mohammad Haghighi Parapari   Chemical Engineering Faculty , SUT , Tabriz , IRAN

                      


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Courses
Course Title:  Unit Operation I
   

A "unit operation" is one step in a process to convert a raw material into some useful chemical product. It's one of the blackboxes which appeared in process and performs some physical (as opposed to chemical) change. In this course, we will learn staged separation techniques and how to design equipment for distillation (usually tray towers), liquid-liquid extraction and leaching. You will know and understand the operation of distillation columns, leaching, and extraction equipment.


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Contents:
      Chapter 1:  Introduction to Unit Operations
      Chapter 2:  Phase Equilibrium in Chemical Engineering
      Chapter 3:  Distillation
      Chapter 4:  Liquid-Liquid Extraction
      Chapter 5:  Solid - Liquid Leaching
      Appendix
Chapter 1:  Introduction to Unit Operations

     1.1 Introduction
     1.2 Typical Unit Operation Systems
          1.2.1 Crude Oil Fractionation
          1.2.2 Production of Ethylene Glycol from Ethylene Oxide
          1.2.3 Separation of Benzene from C6-Cut
          1.2.4 Production of Acrylic Acid from Propylene

          1.2.5 Production of Styrene from Ethylbenzene

Chapter 2:  Phase Equilibrium in Chemical Engineering
     2.1 Introduction
     2.2 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
          2.2.1 Binary Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
               2.2.1.1 Pxy Diagrams
               2.2.1.2 Txy Diagrams
               2.2.1.3 xy Diagrams
          2.2.2 Nonideality in Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
               2.2.2.1 Activity Coefficient
               2.2.2.2 Azeotrops
               2.2.2.3 Depriester Chart for Light Hydrocarbons
          2.2.3 Relative Volatility
               2.2.3.1 Binary Systems
               2.2.3.2 Multicomponent Systems
     2.3 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium
          2.3.1 Binary Systems
          2.3.2 Ternary and Multicomponent Systems
     2.4 Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium
     2.5 Dew Point Calculations
     2.6 Bubble Point Calculations
     2.7 Flash Calculations
Chapter 3:  Distillation
     3.1 Introduction
     3.2 Classifications of Distillation
          3.2.1 Destructive Distillation
          3.2.2 Flash Distillation
          3.2.3 Batch Distillation
          3.2.4 Simple Distillation
          3.2.5 Extractive Distillation
          3.2.6 Azeotropic Distillation
          3.2.7 Vacuum Distillation
          3.2.8 Molecular Distillation
          3.2.9 Steam Distillation
          3.2.10 Reactive Distillation
     3.3 Design of Batch Distillation
          3.3.1 Binary Mixtures
          3.3.2 Multicomponent Systems
     3.4 Continuos Simple Distillation
          3.4.1 Basic Configuration
          3.4.2 Equipment
               3.4.2.1 Columns
                    A. Packed Columns
                    B. Tray Columns
                    C. Tray Columns vs. Packed Columns
               3.4.2.2 Condensers
               3.4.2.3 Reflux Drums
               3.4.2.4 Reboilers
          3.4.3 Feed Thermal Condition
          3.4.4 Numerical Plate to Plate Calculations
          3.4.5 Graphical Methods for Design of Binary Distillation Columns
               3.4.5.1 McCabe-Thiele Method
                    3.4.5.1.1 Assumptions
                    3.4.5.1.2 Operating Lines
                         A. Rectifying Section Operating Line
                         B. Striping Section Operating Line
                         C. Feed Line
                    3.4.5.1.3 Design Procedure
                    3.4.5.1.4 Rating Problem
                    3.4.5.1.5 Limiting Conditions
                         A. Minimum Reflux Ratio
                         B. Minimum Number of Trays
                    3.4.5.1.6 Complex Columns
                         A. Columns with Many Feeds
                         B. Columns with Sidestream
                         C. Other Complex Columns
                    3.4.5.1.7 Summary of McCabe-Thiele Method
               3.4.5.2 Ponchon-Savarit Method
                    3.4.5.2.1 Introduction
                    3.4.5.2.2 Hxy Diagrams
                    3.4.5.2.3 Graphical Mixing Rule
                    3.4.5.2.4 Operating Lines
                         A. Rectifying Section
                         B. Condenser
                         C. Striping Section
                         D. Whole Column
                    3.4.5.2.5 Design Procedure
                    3.4.5.2.6 Rating Problem
                    3.4.5.2.7 Limiting Conditions
                         A. Minimum Reflux Ratio
                         B. Minimum Number of Trays
                    3.4.5.2.8 Complex Columns
                         A. Columns with Partial Condensers
                         B. Columns with Many Feeds
                         C. Columns with Intermediate Reboilers and Condensers
                         D. Columns with Many Sidestreams
                    3.4.5.2.9 Summary of Ponchon-Savarit Method
          3.4.6 Tray Efficiencies
               3.4.6.1 Overall Efficiency
               3.4.6.2 Murphree Tray Efficiency
               3.4.6.3 Point or Local Efficiency
               3.4.6.4 Relationship Between Efficiencies
               3.4.6.5 Use of Murphree Tray Efficiency to Determine Actual Number of Trays
          3.4.7 Selection of Operating Pressure
          3.4.8 Multicomponent Distillation
               3.4.8.1 Introduction
               3.4.8.2 Shortcut Method
                    A. Key Components
                    B. Total Reflux
                    C. Minimum Reflux Ratio
                    D. Number of Trays
               3.4.8.3 Numerical Method

Chapter 4:  Liquid-Liquid Extraction
     4.1 Introduction
     4.2 Basic Configuration
     4.3 Equipment
     4.4 Graphical Mixing Rule
     4.5 Choice of Solvent
     4.6 Single Stage Extraction
     4.7 Multistage Extraction with Crossflow of Solvent
     4.8 Multistage Countercurrent Extraction
     4.9 Minimum Solvent Rate
     4.10 Design Procedure
     4.11 Numerical Method
Chapter 5: Solid-Liquid Leaching
     5.1 Introduction
     5.2 Preparation of Solids for Leaching
     5.3 Rate of Leaching
     5.4 Assumptions
     5.5 Basic Configuration
     5.6 Type of Equipment for Leaching
     5.7 Equilibrium Relations in Leaching
     5.8 Single Stage Leaching
     5.9 Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
          5.9.1 Operating Lines
          5.9.2 Variable Underflow in Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
          5.9.3 Constant Underflow in Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
Appendix
      A: Computer Aided Process Design (17 Slides)
      B: Phase Equilibrium Diagrams
      C: Industrial Pictures

Homework:
     Homework#1  (Chapter 2: Phase Equilibrium in Chem. Eng.)
     Homework#2  (Chapter 3: Distillation: McCabe-Thiele Method)
     Homework#3  (Chapter 3: Distillation: Ponchon-Savarit Method)
     Homework#4  (Chapter 3: Distillation: Column Efficiencies)
     Homework#5  (Chapter 3: Multicomponent Distillation)
     Homework#6  (Chapter 4: Liquid-Liquid Extraction)
     Homework#7  (Chapter 5: Liquid-Solid Leaching)

Solved Problems:

Online Calculations:

References:
 Phase Equilibrium :
     [1] Walas: Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering
     [2] Smith & Van Ness: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
     [3] Prauznits et. al.: Computer Calculations for Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid
          and Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
     [4] Francis: Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium
     [5] Doring et. al.: Vapor Liquid Equilibria for Mixtures of Low-Boiling Substances
     [6] Nielsen: Predicting of Properties of Mixtures
     [7] Hirata & Nagahama: Computer-Aided Data Book of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
 Unit Operations :
     [8] Luyben & Wenzel: Chemical Process Analysis (Mass and Energy Balance)
     [9] McCabe & Smith: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering
     [10] Treybal: Mass Transfer Operations
     [11] Christi J. Geankoplis: Transport Process and Unit Operations
     [12] Stanly M. Walas: Chemical Process Equipments (Selection and Design)
     [13] Brown: Unit Operations
     [14] Foust: Principles of Unit Operations
     [15] Earle: Unit Operations in Food Processing
     [16] Bennet And Myers: Momentum Heat and Mass Transfer
     [17] Holland: Fundamentals of Multicomponent Distillation
     [18] King: Separation Process
     [19] Van Winkle: Distillation
     [20] Billet: Distillation Engineering
     [21] Rose: Distillation Design in Practice
     [22] Treybal: Liquid Extraction
     [23] Smith: Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes
     [24] Norman P. Lieberman: Process Design for Reliable Operations
     [25] Van Hook: Crystallization

Grading:
80-81-1

Midterm ............. 30
Final................... 45
Quiz................... 10
Homework.......... 15
Bonus ................. 5
Summation ...... 105

80-81-2

Midterm ............ 30
Final ................. 45
Quiz.................. 10
Homework......... 15
Bonus ................ 5
Summation ..... 105

 81-82-1

Midterm.............. 30
Final................... 45
Quiz................... 10
Homework.......... 15
Bonus ................. 5
Summation ...... 105

 81-82-2

Midterm.............. 30
Final................... 45
Quiz................... 10
Homework.......... 15
Bonus ................. 5
Summation ...... 105


Related Links:

Downloads:  (more download in my download page)
name
size
discription
7 KB
Excel file: Txy and xy diagrams, Comparison of experimental data and Raouls law for methanol and water VLE system
3 KB
Excel file: Binary vapor - liquid equilibrium
32 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele Method
22 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele Method (Constant relative volatility, Liquid tray efficiencies)
22 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele method (Constant relative volatility, Vapor tray efficiencies)
31 KB
Excel. file: Binary distillation using the Ponchon-Savarit method
49 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the Ponchon-Savarit method with equilibrium and enthalpy data points
14 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele method, Benzene-Toluene system
19 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele method, Multiple feed, Benzene-Toluene system
16 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele method, Steam distillation, Benzene-Toluene system
17 KB
Excel file: Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele method, Packed column, Benzene-Toluene system
36 KB
Excel file: Countercurrent Liquid - Liquid extraction, (Acetic Acid, Isopropyl ether and Water System)
9 KB
Excel file: Countercurrent or Cocurrent Distribution (Linear Equilibrium)
10 KB
Excel file: Countercurrent Distribution (Nonlinear Equilibrium)
41 KB
Binary distillation using the McCabe-Thiele Method
  ©2001-2008 M. Haghighi
Last Updated: July 7, 2003
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